Research Fellow

Dr Gina Arena

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Dr Gina Arena currently coordinates a number of units in the Medical School and School of Population and Global Health at The University of Western Australia (UWA). She has worked in the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (UWA) since 2002 with a focus on Health and Illness and Disease Prevention.

Her primary research interests are in the areas of teaching pedagogy in health and medical education. She has a background in sports, through degrees in Exercise Science and Sport Psychology and a love for living an active and healthy lifestyle.

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Articles by Dr Gina Arena

What is a Pulled Chest Muscle? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

A pulled chest muscle (intercostal muscle strain) happens when the muscles are stretched beyond their capacity, leading to a strain, and sometimes even a tear. It will result in sharp pain in the chest, especially with breathing or upper body movement.

Causes of Quadratus Lumborum Pain & Treatment Options

Quadratus lumborum (QL) pain is caused by stress or a strain of the quadratus lumborum muscle. This muscle is located on either side of the lumbar spine, extending from the lowest rib to the top of the pelvis.

What is Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) is a term for overuse injury which causes pain or uncomfortable condition to the muscles, tendons and nerves.

Causes of Rhomboid Muscle Pain & Treatment Options

Rhomboid muscle pain is felt in the upper back areas between the shoulder blades and the spine. It is usually referred to as upper back pain and is typically related to muscle strain and spasm.

Knee Pain

Knee pain is a term used to describe conditions or issues that lead to discomfort around the knee joint. Numerous injuries to structures can lead to knee pain, including the joint, muscle, cartilage and ligaments.

Neck Pain

Neck pain is a term used for describing conditions or issues that lead to discomfort around the cervical spine (neck). Injuries to structures, such as muscles, nerves and ligaments can lead to neck pain.

Shoulder Pain

Shoulder pain is a term used to describe conditions or issues that lead to discomfort around the shoulder joint. Injuries to structures, such as the joint, tendon and ligaments can give rise to shoulder pain.

Upper Back Pain

Upper back pain is a term used for describing conditions or issues that lead to discomfort between the base of the neck and the thoracic spine (ribcage area).

Hip Pain

Hip pain is a term used for describing conditions or issues that lead to discomfort around the femoroacetabular joint (hip). Injuries to structures, such as the labrum, muscles, ligaments and bone can lead to hip pain.

Ankle Pain

Ankle pain is a term used for describing conditions or problems around the talocrural (ankle) joint. Injuries to structures, such as ligaments, bones and tendons can lead to ankle pain.

What is a Bulging Disc? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about a bulging disc. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Lower Back Pain (Lumbago)

Lower back pain (lumbago) describes pain and stiffness around the lumbar spine. This term describes conditions such as sciatica, muscle spasms, sprains & disc injuries.

What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

One of the most common hand injuries associated with the excessive use of mobile devices and computer work is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). CTS is a painful condition that causes compression of the nerves that pass in the carpal tunnel of your wrist.

What is a Rotator Cuff Tear? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

Rotator cuff tears are an injury to the major muscles and tendons that keep your shoulder joint stable and allows you to lift and rotate your arms. The tendon is torn, resulting in pain and limitation of shoulder movements.

COVID-19 and Working From Home

What you need to consider when working from home: The top tips from a physiotherapist

Wrist Pain

Wrist pain is a term used for describing conditions or issues leading to discomfort around the radiocarpal joint (wrist joint). Injuries to the nerve, ligaments, tendons and joints can lead to wrist pain.

Elbow Pain

Elbow pain is a term used for describing conditions or issues leading to discomfort around the elbow joints (humeroulnar and radioulnar joints).

What is the Difference Between a Tendon and a Ligament?

A ligament is a band of elastic tissue that provides stability to the joints by connecting two bones. While a tendon is a fibrous structure that connects the end of a muscle to the bone.

What is the Difference Between a Muscle and a Ligament?

Muscles are active structures made up of contractile tissue which contract and relax to produce movement. Ligaments are passive structures made up of connective tissue which link across joints to provide stability.

What is the Difference Between a Tendon and a Muscle?

The muscle is composed of contractile tissue that shortens and lengthens to produce activity. While tendons are primarily made up of connective tissue, connecting muscle to bone.

What is Patellar Tendonitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about patellar tendonitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What to Expect When You See a Physiotherapist

Physiotherapists help you get the most out of life. They help you recover from injury, reduce pain and stiffness, increase mobility and prevent further injury.

What is the Difference Between a Headache and a Migraine?

Migraines are a collection of neurological symptoms, such as headaches and aura (i.e. sensitivity to light), which occurs and resolves over several days. In comparison, headaches describe pain or discomfort around the head.

What's the Difference Between a Bulging Disc and a Herniated Disc?

Bulging discs describe the outwards protrusion of the outer layers called the annulus. The inner contents of the disc spill outside during a disc herniation.

What's the Difference Between a Grade 1, Grade 2 & Grade 3 Injury?

The grading of injuries can be classified numerically from 1 to 3. Grade 1 typically represents more minor injuries, grade 2 with more extensive damage and grade 3 are the most significant.

What is the Difference Between a Strain and Sprain Injury?

The term 'strain' is used to describe a tear or rupture in a muscle or tendon. In comparison, 'sprain' relates to a tear or rupture of ligaments.

What are the Medicare Rebates for Physiotherapy in 2022?

An Enhanced Primary Care Plan, or EPC for short, is a treatment plan that your doctor can create for you, helping you access various treatment options through Medicare.

Physiotherapist vs Chiropractor in Australia: Who Should I Choose?

Physiotherapy is the number one referred allied health service by GPs in Australia.

Physiotherapy vs Exercise Physiology in Australia - Who Should I Choose?

Physiotherapists are the most recommended allied health practitioners by GPs in Australia

What is Shoulder Bursitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about shoulder bursitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Plantar Fasciitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about plantar fasciitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What are Heel Spurs? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about heel spurs. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylalgia)? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about tennis elbow. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Scheuermann’s Disease: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about Scheuermann’s disease. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Hamstring Strain? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about hamstring strains. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Meniscus Tear? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about meniscus tears. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Scoliosis: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about scoliosis. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is Golfer's Elbow? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about golfer's elbow. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about ankylosing spondylitis. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

Vertigo - A Balanced Guide

What you need to know about vertigo. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Sprained Ankle? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about a sprained ankle. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What are Shin Splints? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about shin splints. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Achilles Tendinopathy? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about Achilles tendinopathy. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Pain?

Acute pain is usually short term (less than 3-6 months) and is generally easier to pinpoint. In comparison, chronic pain describes long-term pain that has lasted more than 3-6 months

Cervicogenic Headaches: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about cervicogenic headaches. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is Hip Bursitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about hip bursitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Osteoarthritis: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about Osteoarthritis. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is Shoulder Impingement? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about shoulder impingement. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Sciatica? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about sciatica. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is an ACL Tear? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about ACL tears. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Whiplash? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about whiplash. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is an Acute Wry Neck? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about an acute wry neck. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Pes Anserine Bursitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about pes anserine bursitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Osteitis Pubis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about osteitis pubis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about de Quervain’s tenosynovitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is ITB Syndrome? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about ITB syndrome. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Peroneal Tendonitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about peroneal tendonitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Swimmer’s Shoulder? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about swimmer’s shoulder. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Biceps Tendonitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about biceps tendonitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about rotator cuff tendinopathy. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

TMJ Headaches: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about TMJ headaches. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Calf Tear? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about calf tears. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is a High Ankle Sprain? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about high ankle sprains. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Morton’s Neuroma? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about Morton’s Neuroma. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Sprained Finger? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about a sprained finger. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Retrocalcaneal Bursitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about retrocalcaneal bursitis. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Patella Dislocation? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about patella dislocations. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is a Corked Thigh (Quadriceps Contusion)? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about a corked thigh. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What is Pes Planus? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about pes planus. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Arthritis: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

What you need to know about arthritis. This guide covers the causes, signs, treatments & prognosis.

What is Tendinopathy? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about tendinopathy. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

What are Ligament Injuries? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

What you need to know about ligament injuries. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Ankle Pain Before and After Running: 3 Possible Causes

What you need to know about ankle pain from running. This guide covers the causes, symptoms, risk factors, treatments & prognosis.

Back Pain When Breathing: 12 Possible Causes

Back pain from breathing describes any discomfort, aches or soreness around the spine that worsens with breathing. This can extend from the lumbar spine (lower back) to below the cervical spine (neck).

Upper Back and Chest Pain: 8 Possible Causes

There are many different causes of upper back and chest pain. However, there are several physical causes of upper back and chest pain, including injuries to the muscles, joints, bones and ligaments.

Bone Pain and Tenderness: 8 Possible Causes

Bone pain is different from muscle pain as the tenderness cannot be felt on the flesh. On the other hand, it should not be confused with joint pain as bone pain describes discomfort along bones and not between bones.

Groin and Hip Pain: 8 Possible Causes

There are many causes of hip and groin pain, including the joint, bones, muscles and tendons. As a result, it can be hard to determine which part of the hip and groin might be causing the pain.

Heel Pain After Running: 5 Possible Causes

Two of the most relevant causes of heel pain are 1) being overweight in inactive people, and 2) having spurs (bony growths) on the heel(s).

Heel Pain in the Morning: 5 Possible Causes

Heel pain describes any discomfort around the heel, starting from the sole to the back of the ankle. One common complaint is that people experience heel pain in the morning, especially after getting up from bed.

Jaw Pain on One Side: 8 Possible Causes

60-70% of Australians experience jaw pain on at least one side.[1] There may be several reasons why people experience jaw pain. A wide range of conditions, including joint problems, dental issues and in rarer instances, heart attacks.

Knee Pain When Bending: 10 Possible Causes

There are many causes of knee pain when bending. Many actions require the knee to bend, such as walking, squatting, kneeling and sitting.

Should I Use Heat or Cold for Pain?

Typically, ice is used for injuries where there is inflammation and swelling. On the other hand, heat helps ease muscle pain, stiffness and increase blood flow for recovery.

How to Treat a Stiff Neck?

Fortunately, there are several home treatments that are readily available to help you get rid of your stiff neck. Additionally, physiotherapy can also help with a range of neck pain conditions if symptoms keep persisting.

Arm Pain: 8 Possible Causes

Arm pain is a broad term that describes any pain or physical discomfort that is experienced in the arm. It can affect any part of the arm, including the shoulder, elbow, or wrist.

Causes of Lower Back Spasms

Lower back spasms can make it difficult to bend or move. They can be caused by different factors, including overuse or heavy lifting, sitting for prolonged periods, or sleeping awkwardly.

Causes of a Pinched Nerve in the Lower Back

A pinched nerve in your lower back (lumbar radiculopathy) is a condition caused by pressure on the lower back nerves. It can be painful, affecting the area where it originated and one or both lower limbs from the hips, legs, calves, and even the feet.

Pain in the Ball of the Foot: 8 Possible Causes

The ball of the foot is the part of the foot between the arch and toes. It is made up of the heads of the metatarsal bones, with supporting muscles, ligaments, and soft tissue.

Chronic Knee Pain: 10 Possible Causes

Chronic knee pain occurs in one or both knees and lasts long after the initial injury. It is a long-term pain that is often accompanied by swelling or sensitivity.

Common Causes of Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists greater than three months. Chronic pain is not just the typical aches and pains usually experienced by the general population.

Foot Pain: 4 Possible Causes

Foot pain can be caused by overuse, injury, or an underlying medical condition. It can affect any part of the foot including; joints, ligaments, bones and muscles

Chronic Shoulder Pain: 3 Possible Causes

Shoulder pain can be caused by overuse, muscle strain, or repetitive movements. It can also develop with age, or can be caused by an underlying medical issue. Certain strategies can help reduce the onset of shoulder pain.

Causes of Deltoid Pain

Deltoid pain is caused by injury to the deltoid muscle or surrounding area. In most cases, the deltoid pain is caused by muscle overuse, from inadequate recovery after an activity or lack of a warm-up before exercise.

What is Extensor Tendonitis? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

Extensor tendonitis is a term that describes irritation or overload in the tendons of extensor muscles. Tendons are fibrous tissue extending from the muscle that attach to bone.

Forearm Pain: 8 Possible Causes

Forearm pain is categorised by symptoms such as; stiffness and difficulty lifting items. These symptoms can come from several different conditions, ranging from osteoarthritis to injury or other underlying medical conditions.

Groin Pain: 16 Possible Causes

Young, athletic populations may develop groin pain from a muscle strain or injury. In older age groups, there is a greater risk of developing a hernia or other underlying condition that may cause groin pain.

Causes of Myofascial Pain

Myofascial pain is a term that describes symptoms related to the myofascia. Tender focal points can develop in the underlying tissue, known as trigger points. These areas are sensitive to compression, and pain can radiate from these points.

Ice Pick Headaches: Causes, Signs & Treatment Options

Ice pick headache, also known as primary stabbing headaches or ophthalmodynia periodica, is a type of headache characterised by sudden, sharp bouts of pain.

Heel Pain: 7 Possible Causes

Heel pain describes any discomfort in or around the heel. It can occur suddenly, but often develops gradually over time and it can make walking uncomfortable. Overuse injuries, such as plantar fasciitis or tendinopathy, can cause heel pain.

Hip and Leg Pain: 5 Possible Causes

Pain in the hip or leg can be caused by many different conditions, including muscle strain or arthritis.[2] Sometimes, the pain is temporary and will resolve with time. In other situations, it can become chronic.

What is a Hip Flexor Strain? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

Hip flexor strains result from tearing or overstretching the muscles or tendons located at the top of your thigh or pelvic region.

Infraspinatus Pain: 6 Possible Causes

Infraspinatus pain is common and is most often caused by overuse or repetitive movements of the shoulder and arm. It is related to further disability if range of motion and strength continue to be impaired, affecting sleep and activities of daily living.

Medial Knee Pain: 7 Possible Causes

Inner knee pain is a term that describes pain on the medial (inner) side of the knee. The knee can be easily injured as it is a complex joint found between the femur (thigh bone), tibia (leg bone) and patella (kneecap).

Inner Thigh Pain: 6 Possible Causes

Inner thigh pain occurs when there is an injury or condition causing pain in or around the medial (inner) thigh. The medial thigh is a region of the body between the pelvis and the knee.

Jaw Pain: 4 Possible Causes

Jaw pain is a broad term that describes the conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and surrounding areas. The TMJ is a hinge joint that connects the mandible (jawbone) to the temporal bone (part of the skull).

Common Causes of Joint Pain

Joint pain is a broad term that refers to soreness, discomfort, or aching in a joint, ranging from mild to severe. There are several contributing factors to joint pain, such as age, weight, personal history, and general health.

Lateral Knee Pain: 4 Possible Causes

Lateral knee pain is a term that describes pain on the outside, or ‘lateral’, part of the knee. The symptoms of lateral knee pain can include a dull or sharp pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion.

Causes of Knee Pain When Squatting

Knee pain when squatting can occur both in an acute setting, with improper form or technique, or perhaps more chronically with overuse and repetitive injury.

Lateral Foot Pain: 6 Possible Causes

Lateral foot pain describes any pain that is on the outside of the foot, from the base of the foot, up to the ankle joint. Lateral foot pain can be either an acute injury, like a sporting injury, or a more chronic overuse problem.

Leg Pain: 13 Possible Causes

Leg pain describes pain in any part of the leg, from the ankle joint, right up to the hip. It can involve the muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones and joints with a variety of different injuries leading to leg pain.

Acute Lower Back Pain: 4 Possible Causes

‘Acute’ lower back pain refers to the sudden onset of pain in the lumbar (lower) region of the spine (below the ribs, above the buttocks) that can last from a few hours to a few weeks.

Lower Back and Hip Pain: 3 Possible Causes

ack pain can range from a mild ache to a more severe, debilitating pain. Sometimes back pain refers to the hips, and less often, hip pain can refer to the lower back because of their anatomical proximity.

Back Pain in the Morning: 5 Possible Causes

Waking up with back pain in the morning can be frustrating. The symptoms may only last for a couple minutes after walking around for a bit, or may continue throughout the rest of the day.

Left Side Lower Back Pain above the Buttocks: 8 Possible Causes

Most people will experience some form of low back pain in their lifetime. The location of the pain varies between person to person, but can be commonly experienced on the left side above the buttocks.

Lower Back Pain When Sitting: 6 Possible Causes

Low back pain is a common but painful condition that affects the lumbar region of the spine (the lower part of the back). Most people experience some form of lower back pain at some point in their lives.

Causes of Lower Back Pain When Standing

Lower back pain when standing can often be a symptom of muscle fatigue or poor posture and doing it for many years will affect the anatomy of your spine. If you are standing a lot at a high-demand job, your back muscles may tense, thus increasing pain.

Lower Back Pain on the Side: 7 Possible Causes

Left lower back pain is experienced on the left side of the body. The symptoms can vary, from a severe sharp pain to a dull aching pain. Low back pain is common, and many people experience it at some point in their lifetime.

Middle Back Pain: 5 Possible Causes

Middle back pain is a term that describes discomfort between the neck and the lower back, known as the thoracic region.

Causes of Muscle Aches & Pains (Myalgia)

Myalgia, commonly known as muscle aches or pain, is a common condition that describes soreness or aching in the muscles. Almost everyone has experienced some form of muscle ache or pain, especially after a new exercise.

Neck Pain on the Left Side: 10 Possible Causes

Neck pain is a common condition associated with pain or tenderness in the neck and shoulders. The neck comprises seven bones, supported by muscles, ligaments, and other tissues. If these structures are impacted, it can cause left side neck pain.

Possible Causes of Lower Back Tightness

Lower Back Tightness may also occur with tense muscles, stiffness, or cramping. It is not unusual to experience some tightness or soreness after certain activities, but this often returns to normal within a short period of time.

Possible Causes of Neck Pain in the Morning

Sleeping in the wrong position often results in neck pain or stiffness. An awkward head position during your sleep can cause the muscles and ligaments in your neck to be overstretched for hours.

Pain above the Knee: 3 Possible Causes

Soft tissue injury to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles are some of the most common causes of above knee pain. Joint problems such as arthritis and knee bursitis can also cause discomfort and pain above the knee joint.

Pain in the Arch of the Foot: 4 Possible Causes

Pain in the arch of the foot can happen when there is an injury to the muscles, bones, ligaments or tendons that form the foot arch. It is a common complaint experienced by runners but may also affect less active individuals.

Pain in the back of the Knee: 11 Possible Causes

Repetitive stress on the knee from overuse in sports and exercise can result in various conditions causing pain in the back of the knee. In addition, some medical conditions such as cysts and blood clots may also present as pain in the back of the knee

Buttocks Pain: 12 Possible Causes

Pain in the buttocks or gluteal pain usually happens because of overuse injuries. This could lead to inflammation of the gluteal muscles resulting in irritation of the sciatic nerve causing pain in the buttocks extending to the back of the leg.

Right Side Groin Pain: 10 Possible Causes

Right sided groin pain can have many causes, from a pulled muscle (muscle strain), especially for those who play certain sports, to health issues that need emergency services like ovarian torsion or appendicitis.

Pain when Sleeping on your Shoulder: 5 Possible Causes

Shoulder pain can cause many problems and a considerable burden. It can happen for several reasons and disrupt a night of peaceful sleep.

What is Runner's Knee? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

Runner's knee is a condition that causes pain around the kneecap (patella) due to structural defects or repeated stress on the knee from playing sports. People with this condition may also experience clicking sounds or grinding of the kneecap.

Sharp Lower Back Pain: 13 Possible Causes

Sharp pain in the lower back can be caused by muscle strains, injury to the spine or nerve irritation. In addition, medical conditions in the kidneys and other organs can cause referred pain to the low back.

Shin Pain When Running: 3 Possible Causes

Shin pain is a broad term that describes pain or discomfort in or around the shin bone. Shin pain can be caused by a sudden injury, called acute pain. However, in most cases shin pain develops over a period of time.

Causes of Shoulder Blade Pain (Scapula Pain)

Shoulder blade pain is a common condition. People with shoulder blade pain usually experience discomfort near the shoulder blade (scapula), and often have difficulty with everyday activities.

Right Shoulder and Arm Pain: 13 Possible Causes

The most mobile joint in the body, the shoulder joint is prone to injury and pain. This pain may radiate down from the right shoulder into the arm, and at other times, upper arm pain may refer to the shoulder or originate in the neck.

Hip Pain in Runners: 7 Possible Causes

Hip pain is a common condition that plagues many runners. Running places a major strain on the structure of the hips, resulting in muscle tightness or pain. If the pain goes untreated, hip injury may follow.

Causes of Sternocleidomastoid Pain & Treatment Options

The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is a large muscle that extends from the collarbone to behind the ears on both sides of the neck. SCM pain is caused by a variety of factors, including poor posture, which often results in headaches and neck tenderness.

Causes & Types of Neck Pain with Headaches

Neck pain and stiffness is a common cause of headaches. In fact, approximately 70% of people who experience headaches complain of neck pain. Many structures of the neck can get irritated, strained, or compressed, resulting in a headache.

Sudden Ankle Pain Without Injury: 8 Possible Causes

You may notice that your ankle is aching but cannot remember how you injured it. Ankle pain is usually the result of an injury, but it can also occur spontaneously due to conditions such as arthritis, gout, or an autoimmune disease.

Sudden Knee Pain: 10 Possible Causes

Knee pain is a common ailment that affects people of all ages. It can result from a traumatic injury, such as torn cartilage or ligament damage, degenerative conditions, such as osteoarthritis and gout, or an overuse injury.

The 4 Different Types of Pain

Pain is the body’s way of telling us that we are injured or ill. The nervous system triggers pain to make you stop doing something that may result in severe tissue damage. There are many types of pain, and the experience varies from person to person.

Upper Back Pain on the Left Side: 12 Possible Causes

Upper left back pain is often related to a muscle sprain or joint injury. It can also be related to organ pain that refers to the back. Minor pain usually resolves independently, while more chronic and severe conditions may require treatment.

Upper Back Pain on the Right Side: 12 Possible Causes

Upper right back pain is often related to a muscle, ligament, or tendon injury in the neck or shoulder region. It can also be related to more serious conditions such as cancer or a spinal infection

4 Effective Ways Physiotherapists Treat Pain

Physiotherapy deals with the root causes of pain and correct impairments to eventually help you overcome chronic pain.

3 Main Benefits of Acute Care Physiotherapy

A physiotherapist can help minimise these complications and maximise recovery through early interventions and an optimised care plan.

A Physiotherapists Guide to Better Sleep

A physiotherapist can also help improve your sleep hygiene through optimised exercise treatments and patient’s education.

7 Physiotherapy Myths Debunked

Physiotherapists are rehabilitation experts who help people manage pain, restore mobility, regain function and improve quality of life.

6 Reasons to See a Physiotherapist Early on with Pain

Research reveals that patients tend to achieve improved outcomes when they are being treated in the acute pain stage by a physiotherapist.

Top Tips for Workplace Wellness & Ergonomics

Working on a computer can negatively affect your body whether you work from home or in an office. Lack of movement and position variation can lead to body pain and injuries.

Tips to Avoid Overtraining Injuries - A Physiotherapists Guide

Being physically active and in good shape is vital for a healthy lifestyle. Routine exercise and recreational sports are great ways to keep your fitness level up.

Degenerative Disc Disease: What You Should Know

Degenerative Disc Disease happens when the spinal discs cushion the vertebrae lose their thickness and degenerate over time.

Running Advice from Physiotherapists

A study published by the Health Promotion Journal of Australia found that recreational running can help people manage their weight and live healthier lives.

4 Things To Consider After Shoulder Replacement Surgery

Replacing a severely injured shoulder joint can offer pain relief and improve shoulder function, requiring intensive rehabilitation and recovery.

5 Scientifically Proven Tips to Decrease Kneecap Pain

Medically, it is called patellofemoral pain. It is estimated that it affects at least 25% of the adult population worldwide, with an increased chance for women to have it more than men.

What you Should Know About Physical Activity

Physical activity means moving your body and efficiently using more energy. Routine physical activity tremendously benefits your physical, mental and social health.

3 Myths About Running

It is also about training smart and avoiding misconceptions that can harm your growth and training progress. Here are some of the most common running myths and tips for you.

A Physiotherapist's Guide to Lifting Objects Safely

Improper lifting techniques can lead to discomfort and unnecessary stress on your joints, ligaments or muscles, leading to more severe injuries.

A Physiotherapist's Guide to Recover from a Workout

Recovery is a vital part of working out. Your muscles and other soft tissues repair and rebuild during recovery to stay healthy and develop.

Running Injuries and the Role of Physiotherapy

It is widely known that running has tremendous benefits for our health. It improves our cardiovascular endurance and promotes mental and physical health.

9 Things Your Physiotherapist Wants You to Know About Ageing Well

Staying healthy and fit can slow down the process of ageing and prevent various age-related health problems.

Left Arm Pain: 10 Possible Causes

Left-arm pain is a term used to describe a symptom or issue of the left shoulder due to ageing, bone or joint injury, or a pinched nerve. Sudden or unexplained pain could signal a serious condition such as a heart attack or angina

Lower Back Pain on the Right Side: 9 Possible Causes

Lower back pain on the right side is caused by muscle strain or a nerve problem originating in your spine (nonspecific or mechanical). Other causes are due to conditions like kidney stones, infections, and appendicitis.

Right Side Neck Pain: 7 Possible Causes Plus Treatment Options

Right side neck pain is a common complaint due to muscle strain, poor sleeping or bad posture. It is usually treated using home remedies and medications. It is best to see a doctor for severe or prolonged neck pain.

Upper Thigh Pain: 7 Possible Causes Plus Treatment Options

Upper thigh pain is caused by minor muscle injuries and is treatable at home. Other times, it may occur for no apparent reason. When pain is intense and does not go away, it may indicate a severe issue.

What is Cervical Radiculopathy? The Symptoms & Treatment Options

Pain in the neck and shoulder can arise from a variety of different injuries or conditions. One common cause is a pinched nerve from the upper spine, also known as cervical radiculopathy.

Calf Pain: 8 Possible Causes

Calf pain is a common occurrence, often from a mild injury such as a cramp or muscle strain. Injuries to the calf can impact walking, running, and other movements.

Neck and Shoulder Pain: 10 Possible Causes

Neck and shoulder pain has a variety of causes. Some people experience only shoulder or neck pain, while others experience pain in both areas. Depending on the activity and cause, neck and shoulder pain may alternate in intensity.

How to Restore Physical Activity After Covid-19

These tips are designed to help people recovering after a typical case of Covid-19. It is important to note that people who suffer from long COVID or Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 require medical clearance before engaging in any exercise

Top 3 Strategies to Keep Fit

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, there are considerable changes in our routine, negatively affecting our capacity to do healthy activities such as exercise and sports.

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